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Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes.

In Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911,.

Some countries run conditional cash transfer welfare programs where payment is conditional on behavior of the recipients.

Prior to 1900 in Australia, charitable assistance from benevolent societies, sometimes with financial contributions from the authorities, was the primary means of relief for people not able to support themselves.

The Song dynasty government (c.1000AD in China) supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, and paupers' graveyards.

According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor..." This system was substantially modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act, which introduced the system of workhouses.

In 1900, the states of New South Wales and Victoria enacted legislation introducing non-contributory pensions for those aged 65 and over.

Queensland legislated a similar system in 1907 before the Australian labor Commonwealth government led by Andrew Fisher introduced a national aged pension under the Invalid and Old-Aged Pensions Act 1908.

The general term for an action program in support of the well being of poor people in the United States is welfare program, and the general term for all such programs is simply welfare.In American society, the term welfare arguably has negative connotations.In the United States, the term Social Security refers to the US social insurance program for all retired and disabled people.Canada has a welfare state in the European tradition; however, it is not referred to as "welfare", but rather as "social programs".In Canada, "welfare" usually refers specifically to direct payments to poor individuals (as in the American usage) and not to healthcare and education spending (as in the European usage).

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