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Visual radiation is in the middle, with wavelengths that extend from 0.00004 centimeters for violet light to about 0.00007 centimeters for extreme red.These wavelengths are so short that astronomers use a small unit of distance, the "Angstrom" (A), which is 0.00000001 centimeters long.Ultraviolet runs from 4000 A down to about 100 A, X- rays take over to about 1 A, and these are followed by the gamma rays to no known lower limit.The named divisions are artificial and serve only to block out large spectral segments.In the modern spectrograph, light is sent from the telescope onto a "collimator," a curved mirror that straightens the converging beam.The collimator sends the beam to a reflecting grating that makes a spectrum, the colored light then focused by a camera onto a detector, usually a "charge-coupled device," or "CCD," that records the spectra digitally.Violet light is slowed in a glass of water significantly more than red light.

In the middle of the century, prisms were replaced by "diffraction gratings," finely ruled surfaces that produce spectra by the interference of light waves.

This site, closely coupled to The Natures of the Stars and The Hertzsprung- Russell (HR) Diagram, provides an introduction to the spectra of stars and allied celestial objects.

Here we examine the principal way in which astronomers have learned so much about the stars. Pass sunlight through a triangular prism or bounce it off the finely grooved surface of a compact audio disk and see it break merrily into a band of pure sparkling color, its "spectrum," familiar in the colors of a rainbow, in light glittering from newly fallen snow, in the rings and haloes around a partly- clouded Sun and Moon, in the flash of a cut diamond, and in so many other facets of nature.

"Spectra" is embedded with links that will take you back to the appropriate parts of the above two sites. The classic colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet connect in a seemingly infinite number of shades, one blending smoothly into the next.

Together they constitute the "visual spectrum" (or "optical spectrum") because it is the part of the full spectrum that is seen with the human eye.

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