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Therefore, control of the potential parthanatos target sites could not only inhibit this method of cell death, but also could ameliorate related diseases, which is one of the purposes of this study.The family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and their signalling pathways are involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.Parthanatos is a newly discovered form of PARP-1-dependent programmed cell death.It has been reported to play an important role in several cancer or tumour cells; however, few studies have been performed in normal cells.

Our results indicated that parthanatos and the MAPK signalling pathway contribute to Cadmium-induced cell death, and that oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage play key roles in this process.The dilution of the antibodies were according to the instructions.The NRK-52E cell line was purchased from the Cell Bank of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (Shanghai, China), and was used for no more than 15 passages.The Cd acetate stock solution was dissolved in sterile ultrapure water.All the experimental procedures in this study were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Yangzhou University (Approval ID: SYXK (Su) 2012–0029), and this study was carried out in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals by the National Research Council.

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